Fargo, ND

Tactics Used

Reverse stings
Auto seizure
Community service
Public education
Neighborhood action
SOAP orders
John school
Web stings
License suspension

Fargo is a city of approximately 100,000 residents in eastern North Dakota.  The Fargo Police Department and Cass County Sheriff’s Office report that Fargo has a substantial prostitution problem, particularly in local hotels and motels.  In the past few years there has been at least one case of human trafficking and one arrest of a pimp in the city.  Most of the sale of sex is arranged via the internet; it was estimated that about 72,000 sex ads were posted on backpage.com in North Dakota in 2017. Another problem associated with prostitution locally is child endangerment:  in one 2014 case, a young woman was charged with prostitution and drug use in her home while caring for her newborn son, and that she failed to feed and properly nurture the baby.  Sex buyers have also been targeted for robbery in Fargo.  For example, in October, 2019, Fargo police investigated a string of robberies involving men who are tricked by online prostitution ads. One victim reported that after he arrived and paid a woman, a man appeared from a bedroom and held a stun gun to his neck as the woman removed the victim’s wallet and cell phone.  Another man said that he was approached in the building by several men who were armed with a gun, knife and pepper spray, and stole his wallet, cash, car keys, and cell phone.

To address the wide range of problems stemming from the local commercial sex market, police have targeted demand, conducting several web-based reverse stings since 2007, and publicizing the identities of arrestees.  Prostitution and soliciting sex are Class B misdemeanors in North Dakota, punishable by up to 30 days in jail and a $1,000 fine. The cases often result in a guilty plea and deferred imposition of sentence:  if the offender does not violate probation, the charge is removed from their public record (although it remains as a sealed record, which is inaccessible to the public but can be accessed by prosecutors and judges when needed).

An example of a web-based reverse sting in Fargo occurred in September 2017.  60 people responded during the operation aimed at people seeking sex with underage girls, and resulted in two arrests.  It was a lower number than expected due to  heavy competition from other online sex ads that week, which coincided with the annual Big Iron Farm Show at the Red River Valley Fairgrounds in West Fargo. There were 40 to 50 other ads offering sex on Fargo’s backpage.com or quadruple the number seen during the a sting the prior March. In March 2017, undercover officers chatted with more than 85 ad respondents on one day, which resulted in 10 arrests.  The men arrested in September 2017 were charged in Cass County District Court with patronizing a minor for commercial sexual activity. According to a criminal complaint, one man responded to an online ad placed by police and agreed to pay $100 to have sexual intercourse at a local hotel with a person he thought was a 14-year-old girl.  The other man had agreed to pay $70 to engage in oral sex with a person he thought was a 16-year-old girl.

A “john school” program for arrested sex buyers was approved by the State Legislature in 2015, and was operational in February 2017.  The program is a one-day course provided by the Director of the criminal justice program at the University of Mary.  The john school can be used as a sentencing option for people convicted of soliciting prostitution, and features a panel of survivors, discussion of negative effects on the community, and legal and health risks buyers may face as offenders.  Courses can be offered in Bismarck, Fargo, Grand Forks, Minot and Watford City.  During the first six months following its establishment, nobody had has been sentenced to the john school, in part due to lack of awareness and due to under-investment in operations that produce arrestees that would populate the program. In the first half of 2018, 18 men arrested during prostitution stings in Bismarck would have been candidates for the program, but the Assistant City Attorney, who was prosecuting the cases, did not know it existed even though it had been approved by the Legislature in 2015 and ready-to-go in February 2017.  Presentations had been given at conferences for district judges and state’s attorneys, but not to the city-level staff who often handle Class B misdemeanors like the solicitation of prostitution.

In October 2018, the Fargo Police Department led a web-based reverse sting operation called Guardian Angel, in which detectives posed as a juvenile female under the age of 18 offering sex in  exchange for money.  Detectives communicated with 39 individuals, at least one of which appeared at an arranged location to complete the transaction and was arrested for patronizing a minor for commercial sexual activity (A Felony).  The operation was assisted by the North Dakota Human Trafficking Task Force, Homeland Security, North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigations, and the Metro Street Crimes Unit.

Key Partners

  • Fargo Police Department
  • Cass County Sheriff’s Office
  • Local hotels that provide space for web-based reverse stings
  • University of Mary (John School)
  • North Dakota Human Trafficking Task Force
  • North Dakota Bureau of Criminal Investigations
  • Department of Homeland Security

Key Sources

Reverse stings:

Web-Based Reverse Sting:

John School:

Background on local prostitution, sex trafficking, and related violence and child endangerment:

State North Dakota
Type City
Population 92660
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