Additional Resources

This section provides additional reference materials on preventing prostitution and sex trafficking by reducing consumer demand.  Included are reports on the research that led to the development and expansion of Demand Forum, videos of panel discussions and interviews on ending demand, local ordinances and state laws applied to sex buyers, lists of organizations and agencies focused on reducing demand for commercial sex, and more.

Questions? Ideas? Updates? Please contact us.

Organizations and Agencies that Address Demand

There are many non-profit organizations and non-governmental programs working to reduce demand, either exclusively or in addition to providing survivor support or pursuing pimps and sex traffickers.  A number of government agencies are involved in similar work.  We have identified dozens of such efforts in the United States, and there are probably more.  Brief descriptions and contact information for these programs, agencies, and organizations are provided below.

The lists of organizations and programs are unlikely to be comprehensive and completely up-to-date.  Programs unlisted in the Organization List document certainly exist, and  although we try to keep the list reasonably current, some of the programs listed may no longer operate.  Please contact us if you know of programs that should be added to – or deleted from – the lists.

Survivor-Focused Programs

In addition to entities that focus on demand, we have listed at the end of the “Organization List” document over 1,140 programs that provide services to survivors in over 600 U.S. cities and counties.  Many of these program are led and staffed by survivors of commercial sexual exploitation.  While survivor-support programs are crucially important in their own right, they often contribute to anti-demand efforts. For example, many john school programs and other initiatives are led by (or partner with) survivor-serving and survivor-led organizations.  John school programs such as those based in Minneapolis, Kansas City, and San Francisco were led by organizations founded by sex trafficking survivors (Breaking Free, Veronica’s Voice, and Standing Against Global Exploitation, respectively).

Local Contact Information

The Cook County (IL) Sheriff’s Office (CCSO) has compiled contact information for police departments and other local agencies and organizations in hundreds of the cities and counties listed on Demand Forum.  In addition, the International Academy of Trial Lawyers had assembled contact information for the operators of 40 U.S. john schools.  If you are interested in acquiring phone numbers or email addresses in communities that have implemented anti-demand tactics, please contact us.

State Laws and Local Ordinances Related to Prostitution Demand Reduction

In 2017 the Cook County (IL) Sheriff’s Office (CCSO) compiled information about prostitution laws and ordinances (as well as victim service providers), operating in the cities and counties that participate in their National Johns Suppression Initiative.

Documentary Film Addressing the Need to Combat Demand

Two filmmakers conducted research in ten countries in their attempt to answer the question: “How can we prevent sexual exploitation before it happens in the first place?”  Though many governments are improving their prosecution of traffickers and provision of care to victims, the filmmakers explore whether those approaches can actually shrink or eliminate the markets for commercial sex that drive sex trafficking and other forms of commercial sexual exploitation.

“National Johns Suppression Initiative” led by the Cook County Sheriff’s Office (2011 – 2021)

Since 2011, the Cook County (IL) Sheriff’s Office (CCSO) has been coordinating periodic reverse sting operations occurring simultaneously in multiple cities throughout the United States.  The collaborative effort was initially called the “National Day of John Arrests,” and the present name was adopted in 2015.  The coalition of agencies that participate in these coordinated enforcement efforts has grown from 8 to more than 100.  For example, the National Johns Suppression Initiative (NJSI) event occurring in July of 2017 involved 37 law enforcement agencies in 17 states that conducting sting operations producing the arrests of 1,020 sex buyers and and 15 sex traffickers, and 81 individuals involved in commercial sex were offered services.  The 19 NJSI operations from 2011 through 2021 have involved the collaboration of over 140 law enforcement agencies, and have collectively produced the arrests of more than 10,000 sex buyers.  Also produced in these operations has been evidence leading to additional charges such as adult and juvenile felony sex trafficking, criminal solicitation of a minor, pimping, promotion of adult and juvenile prostitution, human trafficking, drug trafficking,  possession of illegal firearms, and arrests for outstanding warrants.  Each of the operations has also led to the rescue of child sex trafficking victims, the seizure of numerous vehicles used in the commission of crime, and the imposition of thousands of dollars in fines.  In many jurisdictions, the arrested sex buyers have been shown a brief video version of a “john school” presentation while they were being processed.  The video was produced by the CCSO, and the production of the video and its dissemination were initially supported by the Demand Abolition program.

Other Resources:


The document below contains a bibliography of key sources encountered and used in the National Assessment research.

National Assessment Database

The database developed during our research for the National Assessment project is provided below.  We have also provided the database documentation in the accompanying file.  The database contains information about 856 sites known to have employed at least one type of anti-demand approach.

National Assessment Final Report

The final report of the National Assessment provides detailed information about how the research was conducted that assembled the materials for this website.  One of its limitations, however, it contains information on programs collected up to 2012.  Since then, more new john school programs have come online, and a few have been discontinued.  Nevertheless, the majority of the information is still valuable and relevant, and provides an overview of the range of options available for structuring and operating education and treatment programs for sex buyers.  For current information, use the Map Locations and Browse Locations function on this website, and select the “John School” tactic, and you can explore all of the communities in the U.S. that are known to have had john school programs between 1981 and 2018.

Local Assessments of Prostitution, Sex Trafficking, and the Need to Address Demand

Local Ordinances Covering Penalties Applied to Sex Buyers

Statutes Covering Penalties for (or Applicable to) Sex Buyers

Video Presentations about Demand